Winter Maintenance & Effects

Through innovation and multi-disciplinary partnerships, the Winter Maintenance and Effects program researches corrosion effects on transportation systems in order to mitigate challenges and concerns. Our problem-driven research emphasizes the development and evaluation of winter maintenance materials, technologies and systems to aid in best practices and decision making.

Program Overview

The WTI Winter Maintenance and Effects (WME) Program aims to research and mitigate winter and corrosion effects on transportation systems through innovation and multi-disciplinary partnerships. To this end, we serve as a bridge between industry and academia and conduct problem-driven research, with emphases on the development and evaluation of materials, technologies and systems to support winter maintenance best practices and decision making for sustainable transportation systems.

Team Culture

The WTI WME program is committed to maintaining a dynamic, enjoyable team environment that listens to end-user needs, fosters growth of team members, encourages innovative thinking, and stimulates inter-disciplinary, win-win partnerships, with the ultimate goal of effecting positive changes to society and industry. Currently our team features a diverse combination of expertise in civil engineering, corrosion science, electrochemistry, polymer chemistry, materials science and engineering, environmental science, toxicology, numerical modeling, industrial engineering, and transportation engineering.

Why Winter Maintenance Research Is Important

In the northern United States and Canada, snow and ice control operations are essential to ensure the safety, mobility and productivity of winter highways, where the driving conditions are often worsened by inclement weather. The United States alone spends $2.3 billion annually to keep roads clear of snow and ice. Depending on the road weather scenarios, resources available and local rules of practice, departments of transportation (DOTs) use a combination of tools for winter road maintenance and engage in activities that include anti-icing, deicing, sanding and mechanical removal. As the detrimental environmental impacts of abrasives are generally greater than those of chemicals, DOTs have begun to minimize the use of abrasives. Currently, the United States applies approximately 20 million tons of salts each year for winter road maintenance. The increased use of chemicals, however, has raised growing concerns over their effects on motor vehicles, the transportation infrastructure, and the environment.

Maintenance agencies are continually challenged to provide a high level of service (LOS) and improve safety and mobility in a cost-effective manner while minimizing corrosion and other adverse effects to the environment. To this end, it is desirable to use the most recent advances in the application of anti-icing and deicing materials, winter maintenance equipment and sensor technologies, and road weather information systems (RWIS) as well as other decision support systems. Such best practices are expected to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of winter operations, to optimize material usage, and to reduce associated annual spending and corrosion and environmental impacts.

In the United States, billions of dollars have been spent to provide corrosion protection for concrete structures, including highway bridges exposed to marine environments and deicing salts. The remediation of concrete bridges, undertaken as a direct result of chloride-induced corrosion of the reinforcing steel, would cost U.S. highway departments $5 billion per year. Corrosion is also a great concern for the durability of pipelines, culverts, and metal-reinforced geotechnical systems. For the transportation infrastructure in cold climates, its durability is further complicated by freeze-thaw cycling. It is in the national interest to achieve better understanding of corrosion and methods for its control, thus reducing the astronomical costs and safety risks associated with corrosion.

Furthermore, deicing and anti-icing chemicals have been reported to react with major pavement materials and deteriorate the integrity of airport and highway pavements. Current understanding of deicer impact on pavements, both Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) and Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA), is mostly based on macro-level observations and testing of properties, whereas mechanisms underlying the critical physical and chemical interactions are poorly understood. Therefore, in-depth research utilizing electrochemical, surface analytical, modeling, and other advanced techniques is needed in order to advance the knowledge base for better design, construction and maintenance of pavement materials and to extend their service life in a cost-effective manner.

The crux is to find the right balance in meeting multiple goals of maintenance agencies, including safety, mobility, environmental stewardship, infrastructure preservation, and economics. A considerable amount of research is still needed in order to fill the knowledge gaps and establish a scientifically robust, defensible decision-making process for sustainable winter maintenance.

About Us

In 2005, the Western Transportation Institute launched Winter Maintenance and Effects as a Program Area as an effort to reorganize our existing research pertinent to weather and winter mobility, and to reflect our growing interest and expertise in the research fields of corrosion and sustainable infrastructure. We currently have six staff researchers and three affiliated faculty members working with students to address a variety of cross-cutting, multi-disciplinary issues faced by today’s transportation industry, particularly those related to sustainable maintenance activities and materials integrity in cold climates. Contact us to find out how to put this multi-disciplinary group to work for you and fast-track your needs for problem-driven, solution-oriented research.

Ongoing Projects

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9 Projects

Field Usage of Alternative Deicers for Snow and Ice Control

Started November, 2016

The goal of this project is to identify alternative deicers to chlorides for snow and ice control operations, with a specific focus on potassium acetate and succinate. The products will be assessed to determine if they allow transportation agencies to meet their defined level of service standards, are cost competitive, and have fewer impacts to the environment and infrastructure. A similar project (4W6403) funded by CESTiCC is also underway.

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Estimating the Application Rate for Liquid Chloride Products Based on Residual Salt Concentration on the Pavement

Started October, 2016

The goal of this project is to determine and document the residual salt concentration on pavement after initial application of salt and salt brine during snow and ice control operations, and then recommend modified application rates for salt and salt brine for various temperatures based on the residual salt concentration on the pavement. The findings from the study will help winter maintenance agencies reduce salt usage while meeting the defined Level of Service. In addition, findings will contribute to environmentally sustainable policies and reduce the salt usage (snow and ice control products) into the environment.

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Quantifying Salt Concentration On Pavement, Phase 2

Started April, 2016

The objectives of this research project are to identify existing and developing technology for mobile chloride detection that provide real time data, test the feasibility and reliability of the technology, and determine if this technology can be used real time by winter maintenance practitioners in the decision making process.. .

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9 Projects

Completed Projects

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74 Projects

Use of Equipment Lighting During Snowplow Operation

Started November, 2014

The objectives of this research are to summarize the state-of-the-practices of light use and configurations and make recommendations on the use of various lighting technologies and mounting techniques on winter maintenance vehicles.

Final project documents and research brief .

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Quantifying Salt Concentration on Pavement

Started November, 2014

The objectives of this research project are to identify existing and developing technology for mobile chloride detection that can provide real time data, test the feasibility and reliability of the technology, and determine if this technology can be used real time by winter maintenance practitioners in the decision making process.. .

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Converting Paved Roads to Unpaved

Started November, 2014

The purpose of this project is to prepare a synthesis that identifies measures to analyze and objectively determine when to convert a paved surface to an unpaved surface, and to identify appropriate unpaved road maintenance and management strategies that will cost-effectively maintain these converted pavements in a good condition than.. .

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Center for Environmental Sustainability

Started March, 2014

The objective of this Center is to systematically engineer environmentally sustainable transportation infrastructures in cold climates, considering the entire life cycle of transportation lanning, design, materials selection, construction, maintenance and operations, preservation, and recycling through the collaboration of academia, industry, and other stakeholders.

 . .

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Cost-Benefit of Various Winter Maintenance Strategies

Started December, 2013

The objectives of this research were to assess the costs and benefits of at least three winter maintenance strategies and identify winter maintenance strategies that would be sustainable for departments of transportation from a cost, safety, and mobility standpoint.

 . .

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Optimization of Salt Storage for County Garage Facilities

Started September, 2013

The objective of this project will be to conduct an analysis of the salt dome facilities utilized by ODOT to store road salt for winter maintenance operations, in order to identify practices and onsite modifications that can improve salt loading and storage at ODOT salt domes and enhance worker safety.. .

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Highway User Expectations for ITD Winter Maintenance

Started June, 2013

The objectives of this research are to obtain a better understanding of what Idaho highway users’ expectations are for the Department’s winter maintenance efforts and to develop new or revised level of service recommendations for consideration by the Idaho Transportation Department (ITD).. .

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Benefit-Cost Analysis of CDOT Fixed Automated Spray Technology (FAST) System

Started November, 2012

The objective of this research was to determine the cost-effectiveness of all the existing Fixed Automated Spray Technology (FAST) Systems operated by the Colorado Department of Transportation (CDOT). The project developed a best management and performance practices guide for the future planning, design, construction, operation and maintenance of FAST systems for Colorado’s highway and bridge networks..

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Snow Removal at Extreme Temperatures

Started March, 2012

The goal of this project was to review best management practices for maintaining clear roads at extremely low temperatures and develop cost effective strategies for getting the roadway to a bare/dry condition in extreme temperatures and keeping it at that condition.. .

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Models for Estimating the Benefits for Winter Maintenance Operations

Started August, 2011

The objective of the proposed research is to identify methods for estimating the benefits – both economic and non-economic – of winter maintenance operations. Once identified, these methods and their corresponding supporting data will be employed to estimate the benefits of winter maintenance operations for different scenarios of winter-storm conditions..

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Develop Locally Sourced Salt Brine Additive for Anti-Icing

Started August, 2011

The objective of this project is to determine if local agricultural products or byproducts of local distilleries/breweries or other manufacturing processes could be cost-effectively used to replace high-cost proprietary products to enhance the performance characteristics of salt brine for anti-icing on Alaska roads.. .

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Testing Methodology for Performance Characteristics and Friction Coefficient of Deicing and Anti-icing Chemicals

Started March, 2010

The existing laboratory tests are limited in their ability to predict field performance and friction coefficient of deicers for several reasons. Traffic, humidity, pavement temperature and condition, presence of solar or thermal radiation, and active precipitation and wind are all factors that are often overlooked in lab tests. Most importantly, previous studies are not typically correlated to results from field tests.

Test methods identified during the extensive literature search will provide a more complete picture of previous research

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National Scan of Best Practices for Road Dust Control and Soil Stabilization

Started August, 2009

The purpose of the National Scan is to examine programs and practices employed by different governmental agencies and contractors that result in effective dust control and/or soil stabilization on unpaved roads. The driving force behind this scan is that road dust and/or the additives used in its control pose a myriad of health, safety, economic, regulatory, and environmental challenges..

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Development of a Toolkit for Cost-Benefit Analysis of Specific Winter Maintenance Practices, Equipment and Operations

Started December, 2008

This project is expected to benefit states by simplifying the process by which cost-benefit analysis can be completed. The toolkit will calculate the costs and benefits associated with winter maintenance practices, equipment and operations; by providing this information in an understandable format, managers will be able to justify expenditures on new products and technologies.

In addition, this information will help winter highway maintenance engineers to make more informed decisions regarding new products. Such evaluations will also help users understand how a product may work in their operations and help better match practices, equipment and/or operations to their specific roadway environment and level-of-service requirements.

In the long-term, DOT personnel who use the toolkit to select the optimal practices, equipment and operations may be able to improve the level of service, reduce the winter maintenance costs, and reduce the corrosion and environmental impacts due to snow and ice control operations.

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Evaluation of the UDOT Weather Operations/RWIS Program on Traffic Operations

Started September, 2008

Phase I of the evaluation focused on developing an internal business case for the Weather Operations/RWIS program, in other words to demonstrate its effectiveness to the Utah Department of Transportation by documenting its benefits to the winter maintenance and construction divisions.

This project provides an opportunity to expand the evaluation to look at the program’s impacts on other divisions. This will provide a more complete picture of how the program has benefited the agency. Also, this research will help establish a nationwide prototype of the unique program with stationed meteorologists that provide year-round and area-specific weather forecasts to various users.  As Aurora represents several U.S

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Inhibitor Longevity and Deicer Performance Study

Started January, 2008

The objective of this research is to evaluate the cost effectiveness of corrosion inhibitors in deicing chemicals, and their longevity when in storage or on the road. The project also aims to establish a reliable measure to quantify the performance of anti-icing and deicing chemicals..

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Lab Investigation of Deicer Impacts on Concrete Microstructure and Pavement Friction Coefficient

Started January, 2008

This research examined the impacts of various deicer products on the microstructure of concrete and the friction coefficient of pavement materials. As such, this project will further the understanding of deicer performance, which will assist the Colorado Department of Transportation in their current research efforts to identify safe and effective alternative deicer products.

In the long-term, the research may allow all DOTs to utilize better decision-making and management practices with respect to reducing the amount of chemicals and cost for snow and ice removal operations while providing safe, reliable winter highways for the traveling public.  These findings may help DOT professionals to use a more comprehensive and systematic approach to selecting deicer products, an approach that considers not only cost and effectiveness, but also corrosive and environmental impacts.  In addition, bridge and pavement engineers may be able to use this information to improve design specifications for structures such as roads and bridges..

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Development of Standardized Test Procedures for Evaluating Deicing Compounds

Started November, 2007

The research results will benefit states by identifying/developing standard tests that address deicer evaluation criteria in addition to existing PNS tests. This research is also expected to provide significant information on which to base the selection and potentially pricing of deicers and inhibitors. This will lead to best practices by transportation agencies that apply the right type and amount of materials in the right place at the right time for snow and ice control.

This research is expected to significantly advance the knowledge base for winter maintenance best practices, and thus help maintenance agencies address the challenge in meeting multiple priorities in safety, mobility, environmental stewardship, and infrastructure preservation in a fiscally responsible manner

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Impacts of Airport Pavement Deicing Products on Aircraft & Airfield Infrastructure

Started March, 2007

Researchers will determine through the collection and assessment of available data whether the use of particular PDPs have been seen to result in damage to pavements or aircraft components, and whether adjusting PDP formulations can mitigate those effects. The research may also result in suggestions for modifications in the manufacture of components and the construction of runways.


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Validating the Durability of Corrosion Resistant Mineral Admixture Concrete (04-GS108)

Started June, 2006

Corrosion of reinforced and prestressed concrete structures is a major and increasing problem worldwide. Possibly half of the US’s 500,000 bridges require immediate attention and the total repair bill is estimated at $90 billion (Dunker and Rabbat, 1993).  The remediation of concrete bridges in the US, undertaken as a direct result of chloride-induced corrosion of the reinforcing steel, would cost the US highway departments $5 billion per year (FHWA, 1999).


Caltrans owns and maintains approximately 15,000 bridges with spans over 20 feet, and there are an equal number in the city and county systems.  Caltrans construction (primarily bridge construction) averaged almost $1.3 billion per year over the 1988-1992 period, and the majority of California highway bridges are prestressed or reinforced structures (Hampson and Fischer, 1997).  In both types of structures, the corrosion of steel reinforcement in concrete is a significant problem.


The cost of maintenance and rehabilitation required to reserve the structural integrity and overall safety of Caltrans highway structures is phenomenal. Repeated rehabilitation and repair also incur a significant environmental toll, as well as the delays caused by closing roads or bridges.   On the other hand, appropriate design for corrosion protection would generate substantial cost savings for the Department by minimizing the premature rehabilitation or failure of highway bridges and reducing the construction costs.

The research will produce valuable information to be used by the Caltrans Design Engineer and may lead to improvements to the current Caltrans BDS in mitigating chloride-induced corrosion and deterioration.  In addition to the validation of corrosion mitigation design assumptions, the research results will also assist the Department to rapidly evaluate concrete mixes designed with new mineral admixtures, allowing implementation of cost-effective corrosion mitigation strategies while providing safe and reliable structures for the traveling public.

This research could lead to additional research phases as necessary, such as the development and field evaluation of various types of high performance corrosion resistant concretes.  With extended service life and reduced need for costly and difficult repair and rehabilitation of bridge structures, the implementation of better design practices will have immediate positive impact on the California highway system, including cost savings, enhanced traveler safety, reduced traveler delays, and minimized environmental impacts.

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Evaluation of Alternate Anti-Icing & Deicing Compounds Using Sodium Chloride & Magnesium Chloride as Baseline Deicers

Started June, 2006

Project Objective
The overall goal of this project was to evaluate potassium acetate (KA) and sodium acetate/formate blend deicers (or possibly potassium formate) as alternative anti-icing and deicing compounds relative to NaCl salt-sand mixtures and MgCl2 (baseline deicers) based on various criteria specified by the Colorado Department of Transportation (CDOT).. .

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Synthesis of Info on Anti-Icing/Pre-Wetting

Started September, 2004

The purpose of this project was to develop a large volume of reference material, a detailed research document and brochure on the advantages and disadvantages of the use of anti-icing and pre-wetting for winter maintenance in the Pacific Northwest.. .

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Materials Corrosion Laboratory: Evaluating Common Corrosion Inhibited Deicers

Started December, 2003

During the winter season in the northern states, large amounts of solid and liquid chemicals, known as deicers, are applied on the roadways to ensure continued mobility, safety, and productivity. While maintaining safe winter driving conditions, the deicers are arguably a great concern as the source of corrosion of vehicles and pavements.  In addition, the use of deicers also causes corrosion of reinforcing bars (rebars) in concrete and lead to structural failures before the design life of transportation infrastructure is attained..

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Winter Surface Condition Forecasting

Started October, 2001

The purpose of this project was to extend the knowledge that has been gained in the winter highway forecasting of pavement temperatures modeling and draw upon the well established snow and ice competency which has historically been a strength at MSU.

 . .

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Assess Caltrans Road Weather Information System (RWIS) Devices and Related Sensors

Started June, 2001

Caltrans Roadway Weather Information Systems (RWIS) devices are installed at critical areas throughout the state where atmospheric and pavement data could be used for maintenance and transportation management. An assessment of their use and research of their effectiveness is needed to improve the use of existing devices and research the communications systems that prohibit open data transfer between the devices..

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RoadView™ Needs Assessment and Cost/Benefit Analysis

Started June, 2000

The overall goals of attaching collision warning and lateral guidance systems to conventional snowplows (ASP) are to:

increase safety by;
reducing snowplow accidents,
reducing damage to other vehicles and infrastructure, and
reducing injuries to snowplow operators or other vehicle occupants,
improve operational efficiency and traveler mobility by;
increasing speed of snowplow removal tasks,
reducing erratic snowplow movements,
reducing road closures/travel delays,
reducing run-off-the-road incident and lane departures, and
demonstrate potential benefits of AVCS technologies by;
evaluating system performance,
assessing operator’s acceptance of the system,
assessing system’s ease of operation,
assessing perceived benefits of the system, and
assessing operator’s level of confidence with the system.
. .

See Full Project »

74 Projects

Our News

14 News Posts

12th TRB International Conference on Low-Volume Roads

Posted on November 20th, 2017

TRB is sponsoring the 12th TRB International Conference on Low Volume Roads on September 15-18, 2019 in Kalispell, Montana. This conference examines new technologies and new techniques in the planning, design, construction, operation, maintenance, and administration of low-volume roads. Panelists will explore case studies and practical solutions. View Full News Post »

Posted in: Event

Deicer Research Highlighted by TRB

Posted on October 30th, 2017

The most recent issue of the national Transportation Research Board Newsletter has featured an article on a WTI research report sponsored by the Minnesota Department of Transportation.  “Field Usage of Alternative Deicers for Snow and Ice Control” summarizes non-chloride based deicers available on the market, including acetate, formate, glycol, and succinate based deicing products. The report explores the deicers’ feasibility for use as alternatives to chloride based deicers, and identifies next steps to determine if a non-chloride based deicer is a viable option for implementation in winter maintenance operations by MnDOT and local snow and ice removal providers. View Full News Post »

Posted in: In The News, Research

Corrosion of metals exposed to 25% magnesium chloride solution and tensile stress: Field and laboratory studies.

Posted on August 27th, 2017

Researchers from WTI’s Winter Maintenance program have published “Corrosion of metals exposed to 25% magnesium chloride solution and tensile stress: Field and laboratory studies.” This case study investigated the corrosive effects of chemicals used for snow and ice control operations, to better understand the potential impact on transportation infrastructure and motor vehicles. Citation: Shi, X. View Full News Post »

Cold Climate Researchers and Students Exchange Ideas at Summer Workshop

Posted on August 21st, 2017

On August 10-11, 2017, the Center for Environmentally Sustainable Transportation in Cold Climates (CESTiCC) hosted its annual summer workshop at Washington State University (WSU) in Pullman.  CESTiCC is a USDOT University Transportation Center, led by a consortium that includes the University of Alaska Fairbanks, Montana State University (WTI) and WSU.  The annual forum provides an opportunity for the Center to showcase its projects, and for researchers to exchange ideas on a variety of topics related to environmentally sustainable transportation issues, which spurs collaboration and new directions for upcoming research. View Full News Post »

Posted in: Event, Presentation

CESTICC Announces Summer Workshop

Posted on May 1st, 2017

The Center for Environmentally Sustainable Transportation in Cold Climates (CESTiCC) will hold its annual Summer Workshop on Thursday, August 10 in Pullman, Washington at Washington State University. The workshop will provide an opportunity for exchange on each of CESTiCC's research thrusts and will feature a student poster competition and lectern sessions on a variety of topics related to environmentally sustainable transportation issues and research. If you would like to submit an abstract for presentation or a poster title, please follow the instructions on the event's flyer. View Full News Post »

Stateline Highlights Unpaved Roads Research

Posted on January 23rd, 2017

Stateline, a national website covering trends in state policy, published a feature story on a recent WTI project on the pros, cons, and costs of converting low-volume paved roads to unpaved roads. In “Dirt Roads Help Some Cities, Counties Drive Down Costs,” Stateline interviewed Principal Investigator Laura Fay about her research for the National Cooperative Highway Research Program, which sought to explore how commonly and under what conditions transportation agencies are converting paved roads to unpaved roads. Through a national survey, the project identified 48 agencies that have completed conversions, 70 conversion projects, and 550 miles of converted roadway. View Full News Post »

Posted in: In The News

WTI hosts Summer Workshop for Environmentally Sustainable Transportation in Cold Climates

Posted on September 29th, 2016

The Center for Environmentally Sustainable Transportation in Cold Climates (CESTiCC) held its annual summer Workshop in Bozeman on August 12. Participants and presenters represented multiple organizations including University of Alaska - Fairbanks, Washington State University, University of Wisconsin – Platteville, University of Texas-San Antonio, University of Tennessee – Knoxville, Michigan Tech, KC Harvey Environmental, and Montana DEQ. The workshop hosted presentations, updates, and a poster session on CESTiCC projects, followed by tours of the MSU campus and WTI labs. View Full News Post »

Posted in: Event, Outreach

Winter Maintenance Work featured on Roads and Bridges Website

Posted on September 7th, 2016

The August 29 issue of Roads and Bridges included an article written by WTI’s Anburaj Muthumani and Laura Fay on assessing the use of snowplow lighting for optimal safety. “Can you see me now?” highlights the work done by the research team for the Clear Roads Best Practices Guide for snowplow lighting. Led by WTI, the team has compiled these findings into a best practices guide for winter maintenance agencies. View Full News Post »

Posted in: In The News, Research

Utah DOT Research Newsletter highlights WTI work

Posted on October 7th, 2015

The Summer 2015 issue of the Utah DOT Research Newsletter highlights the valuable research made possible by Clear Roads, the Pooled Fund Project led by the Minnesota DOT. Several important and practical Clear Roads research projects are featured, including WTI’s Corrosion Manual and the Environmental Best Practices Manual. http://www. View Full News Post »

Posted in: Outreach, Research

A View from the Window – the Locomotive Windshield

Posted on April 29th, 2011

While defogging and chipping ice off of automobile windshields can be slow, tedious work, motorists typically have the tools and the ability to pull over to complete the task. For operators of locomotives pulling freight cars, the task is a bit more daunting. Locomotives are designed to operate in very harsh weather conditions in order to minimize delays associated with inclement weather. View Full News Post »

Posted in: Research

Winter Maintenance and Effects Update

Posted on April 29th, 2011

(Article from April 2011 eNews) As regions across the United States braced for snow storm after snow storm this winter, transportation in areas typically unaccustomed and unprepared for these types of conditions came to a grinding halt, paralyzing some cities for days at a time. While most of these scenarios reflect emergency situations where large snow accumulation occurred in a short amount of time, they invite awareness as to how well transportation systems operate in regions that ARE accustomed to inclement weather and hazardous driving conditions on a regular basis during the winter season. In the northern United States and Canada, snow and ice control operations are essential to ensure the safety, mobility and productivity of winter highways. View Full News Post »

Posted in: Research

Winter Maintenance and Effects - It's not just about moving snow...

Posted on April 28th, 2011

(Introduction from April 2011 eNews) The calendar tells us it is spring, but for those of us in the northern regions of the country, it may be wishful thinking and a bit premature to remove the snow tires on our vehicles just yet. As we reflect on this winter, we remember hazardous Thanksgiving driving, Christmas snowstorms that buried New York City, and an ice storm blanketed by a snow storm in Dallas, Texas just days before the much hyped Super Bowl XLV. North, south, east, west, every region of the country experienced some form of atypical winter weather condition that ultimately caused traveling hiccups. View Full News Post »

Posted in: News

CSIL & WTI staff host a field site visit at Transcend

Posted on November 4th, 2009

Researchers from the Corrosion and Sustainable Infrastructure Laboratory (CSIL), WTI, hosted a field site visit at Transcend, in conjunction with a project meeting, for the Pacific Northwest Snowfighters Association (PNS) members. There is currently a project underway that is being conducted by WTI researchers for the PNS members which focuses on the longevity of stored deicers, including winter field testing at Transcend. Members of this pooled fund effort toured the research facility; including the deicer storage facilities, the snow making system, and the field site where winter testing is scheduled to begin in early 2010. View Full News Post »

Posted in: Outreach, Staff

14 News Posts

Our Staff