Collaborative Human-Automated Platooned Truck Alliance (CHAPTA)

WE can follow......WE can innovate and lead......or WE can be left behind.
Asia is operating
collaborative human
– automated truck
platoons. Europe is moving
truck platoons, from multiple
manufacturers, across
borders.
 U.S.A. can take the lead by
integrating fully autonomous
trucks with human‐driven or
human-supervised trucks in
a collaborative platoon on
conventional roadways: save
$17.2B annually with 60%
platooning duty cycle.
• Fleets late to operate in a 
collaborative platoon face a
 HUGE competitive disadvantage.
• Collaborative savings achieved are
486% higher than aero  savings
alone.

Realize Economic Savings

 Assumed Aerodynamic Savings Percentage of TOTAL OPERATING COSTS saved:
(aerodynamics + driverless trucks)
    Number of Human Driver/SupervisedTrucks in the Platoon
 Lead TruckFollowers  5432
 5%10%-20%2%-4% 9%-11%16%-18%23%-25%

Address Truck Driver Shortage

Collaborative human – automated truck platoons begin to address the 50% nationwide driver shortage.

What is CHAPTA?

 

Stakeholders Include

CHAPTA is a pre-competitive research effort led by the Western Transportation Institute at Montana State University to unite stakeholders to cooperatively and intelligently introduce driverless technology to long-haul truck fleets. • Fleet operators
• Truck OEMs
• Tiered suppliers
• Technology providers
• Insurance companies
• Economists and financiers
• Standards organizations
• FMCSA –US DOT
• State DOTs
• Warehousers
• Retailers
• Enforcement

CHAPTA Goals

 
Promote: U.S. Competitiveness.
Ensure: Compatibility with existing highway traffic.
Focus: Human factors, safety and operations, and workforce development.
Address: Institutional issues affecting deployment.
 

Graphic and text to encourage viewers to join CHAPTA.

Human Factors

 

Operations

 

Workforce Development

• What personality types are suited for platooning, how to recruit, how to screen?
• How should autonomous truck platoons behave to instill trust and ensure comfort?
• What platoon information, how  much, frequency, and mode (audible,  tactile, graphical) should be provided  to each driver?
 • What is the maximum size of a workable  platoon considering human workload,  economics, and safety?
• How does the size of the platoon affect non‐platooned traffic with respect to efficiency, and safety?
• Insurance and liability.
• Specific behavior at entrance and exit ramps.
 • Fleets late to operate in a  collaborative platoon face a  HUGE competitive disadvantage.
• Collaborative savings achieved are 486% higher than aero  savings alone.

Can you afford to be left behind?

Autonomy WILL happen-join CHAPTA and stay ahead of the curve.

Levels of participation
 

Annual Cost

 

Governance Votes

$50K 4
$40K 3
$30K 2
$20K 1
 

WTI Research Capabilities

  
 Driving Simulator Full-scale road testing and validation site
  Western Transportation Institute (WTI) Driving simulator laboratory, shows commercial vehicle passing simulator  Aerial view of WTI's Transcend test track and storage facilities.
 • Personality evaluation.
• Trust and comfort.
• Information Studies: content, modes and rates.
 • Braking and acceleration.
• High speeds.
• Machines to produce rain, snow,  mist and ice for adverse conditions.

Research Experience

Autonomous Bus Testing

This video shows RTK GPS-based bus guidance on a narrow shoulder between Apple Valley and downtown Minneapolis, MN.  Four views are upper left: View through Head Up Display showing virtual lane markers in comparison to actual lane boundaries and forward collision awareness (white boxes).  This video was taken on 02 January 2010; the buses have been in revenue service since August 2010.

  “Gang Plowing” or “Snowplow Platoons”

To improve the efficiency and safety of winter highway maintenance operations, Minnesota typically operates snowplows in “gangs” on multi-lane roadways.  Operational difficulties lie in the area of visibility; the leading snowplows create localized “whiteouts” where drivers in the following vehicles are unable to determine lane boundaries and detect other vehicles.  Automated platooning was developed and tested in 2004 on highway 101 North of I-94 near Rogers, MN.  With the automated platoon, the following plow can follow the lead plow at a user-specified lateral and longitudinal distance using RTK GPS, map databases, and  V2V communication (all that was available at that time was 802.11b).  This leader-follower behavior can be maintained regardless of the weather conditions. 

Avalanche Road.

CHAPTA investigator Shankwitz led the development of an RTK GPS0-based Drive Assist System which allows snowplow operators to clear roads in low-to-zero visibility conditions.  The system featured here clears roads on the Thompson Pass near Valdez, AK, and is one of three current deployments (others being in California and Minnesota).  This system was first installed on 2 vehicles in 2003; three more were added to the fleet in 2011.  Courtesy of the Speed Channel. 

Snowplow location detection and display.

CHAPTA investigator Shankwitz led the development of an RTK GPS0-based Drive Assist System which allows snowplow operators to clear roads in low-to-zero visibility conditions.  The system featured here clears roads on the Thompson Pass near Valdez, AK, and is one of three current deployments (others being in California and Minnesota).  This system was first installed on 2 vehicles in 2003; three more were added to the fleet in 2011.  Courtesy of the History Channel.