Crossing Structures Around the World


Many other countries around the world have built structures; they exist on all continents except Antarctica. Numerous European countries have used crossing structures to reduce wildlife and roads conflict for over 60 years.

Suggested reading: Bank et al. 2002 pdfWildlife Habitat Connectivity Across European Highways2.02 MB

In the United States, hundreds of wildlife crossings have been built in the past 30 years in over 13 states. Other examples of relatively long road sections in North America with a high concentration of wildlife crossing structures and wildlife fencing are the Trans-Canada Highway in Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada; I-75 in south Florida; State Route 260 in Arizona; and I-90 at Snoqualmie Pass East in Washington State.

US 93 South, Montana

The US 93 South project covers the 25 miles between Hamilton and Florence, and includes 19 large mammal structures, two separate locations of approximately one-mile stretches of wildlife fencing on both sides of the road and multiple wing fencing installations. This project will be completed in 2015. Monitoring research is underway. See the website for more information.

Data collection of small mammal use of culvert crossings research was conducted from 2001 to 2004 for 12 culverts on a previously reconstructed portion of US 93 South from Lolo to Florence. See the website for more information.

Banff National Park


The most recognizable wildlife crossings in the world are found on the Trans-Canada Highway in Banff National Park in Alberta, Canada, where dozens of wildlife crossings were constructed since the 1980s (24 crossing structures over 28 miles). For 12 years, researchers led by Dr. Tony Clevenger have closely monitored how different species use these structures, and in the process have collected an enormous volume of valuable data on crossing frequency, species preference and behavior. As depicted in the table below, over 191,000 wildlife crossings have been detected from November 1996 to March 2011. Coyotes, wolverine, and lynx also use these structures. Mortality rates on the highway have dropped by more than 80 percent.

Number of detected crossings by species in Banff from 1996-2011

Species Number of detected crossings 1996-2011
Elk 42,541
Deer 134,593
Moose 222
Bighorn Sheep 4,750
Black bear 1,317
Grizzly bear 873
Cougar 1,493
Wolf 5,547
Total 191,336

More information on Banff wildlife crossing structures can be found at the Highway Wilding website and Parks Canada website.

Also check out the following documents:

Clevenger et al. 2009
pdfBanff Wildlife Crossings Project: Integrating Science and Education in Restoring Population Connectivity Across Transportation Corridors4.06 MB

Dr. Tony Clevenger’s presentation at the 2011 International Conference on Ecology and Transportation (ICOET) entitled
pdf15 Years of Banff Research: What we’ve learned and why it’s important beyond the park boundary.5.37 MB

pdfTen Quick Facts about Highway Wildlife Crossings in the Park1.3 MB